Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumptively autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We present here a literature review including a list of potential antigens inducing the autoimmune response, these including myelin and nonmyelin structures. None of the antibodies to any of these antigens has sufficient specifi city and sensitivity for use in routine laboratory practice. Oligoclonal immunoglobulins identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF) are currently the main immunological markers for MS. The sensitivity and specifi city of the IEF method are 90% and 85%, respectively. The present article also discusses additional markers such as oligoclonal IgM and the MRZ reaction.
Makshakov, G.S., Lapin, S.V. & Evdoshenko, E.P. Current Concepts of the Intrathecal Humoral Immune Response and the Diagnostic Significance of the Detection of Oligoclonal Immunoglobulins in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurosci Behav Physi 47, 534–539 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-017-0431-1