Risk factors for complications and refractory course in patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis

Risk factors for complications and refractory course in patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis
Автор:  Belyaeva I., Pervakova M., Mazurov V., Inamova O., Lapin S.
Год:  2020
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Публикация: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 79(Suppl 1):378.2-378. June 2020.


Background. ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis (AAV) is characterized by a high incidence of complications and high mortality. The most significant complications during the first 3 years of the disease are infectious and cardiovascular. Development of chronic kidney disease also impairs the prognosis of AAV. Refractory to induction therapy can significantly increase the severity of organ lesions in patients with AAV. 
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for complications and refractory course in patients with AAV. Methods Patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) were observed during the first 3 years of the disease and included in this study between 2010 and 2018. Most common infectious complications requiring inpatient treatment were pneumonia, mycosis, sepsis, purulent arthritis, purulent otitis media. Cardiovascular complications included pulmonary thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, venous thrombosis. 
Results. In total 209 (165 [79%] female and mean age 51.8 ± 13.2 years) AAV patients (94 GPA; 46 MPA; and 69 EGPA) were included in the analysis. Risk factors for infectious complications were BVAS level at the beginning of induction therapy > 25 (OR – 2.92, 95% CI (1.53;5.45) p<0.001), usage of prednisone in doses more than 60 mg / day at the induction of remission (OR – 2.76, 95% CI (1.45;5.29) p=0.003), usage of prednisone in doses ≥ 10 mg / day after 6 months of induction therapy (OR – 2.60, 95% CI (1.38;4.93) p=0.003), ANCA-PR3 positivity (OR – 2.25, 95% CI (1.13;4.46) p=0.017) and presence of diabetes mellitus in the AAV onset (OR – 1.77, 95% CI (1.14;3.45) p=0.038). Patients with AAV had following risk factors for cardiovascular complications: male (OR – 2.28, 95% CI (1.33;3.88) p=0.002), BVAS level > 25 (OR – 2.1, 95% CI (1.11;3.16) p=0.008) and presence of coronary artery disease in the AAV onset (OR – 2.2, 95% CI (1.18;4.10) p=0.015). ANCA positivity (OR – 5.62, 95% CI (2.1;14.9) p<0.001), presence of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in the first 3 months from onset AAV (OR – 5.02, 95% CI (3.42;7.35) p<0.001) and over 60 years of age (OR – 2.17, 95% CI (1.38;3.44) p=0.001) were risk factors of development of chronic kidney disease. Risk factors for refractory to induction therapy in patients with AAV were ANCA-PR3 positivity (OR – 3.13, 95% CI (1.63;6.02) p<0.001), BVAS level > 25 (OR – 2.63, 95% CI (1.74;4.34) p<0.001), initiation of therapy after 4 months from the onset of clinical manifestations (OR – 2.17, 95% CI (1.26;3.91) p=0.005). We additionally defined that identification of pathological phenotypes of alpha-1-antitrypsin was risk factors for refractory course in patients with GPA manifestations (OR – 2.66, 95% CI (1.12;6.33) p=0.048). 
Conclusion. Our study has shown that high disease activity, ANCA positivity and comorbid pathology increase risk of serious complications. Early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, adequate steroid dosing and use of risk factors for complications and refractory course in clinical practice can significantly improve the prognosis of AAV.
Chudinov, A. & Belyaeva, I. & Pervakova, Margarita & Mazurov, V. & Inamova, O. & Lapin, Sergey. (2020). THU0300 RISK FACTORS FOR COMPLICATIONS AND REFRACTORY COURSE IN PATIENTS WITH ANCA-ASSOCIATED SYSTEMIC VASCULITIS. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 79. 378.2-378. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-eular.6460.